Divorce

La loi du 26 mai 2004 relative au divorce (J.O. 27 p. 9319), entrée en application le 1er janvier 2005, a introduit dans le code civil quatre sortes de divorces : le divorce par consentement mutuel, le divorce par acceptation du principe de la rupture du mariage, le divorce pour faute et le divorce pour altération définitive du lien conjugal.

 

Le divorce par consentement mutuel

Il suppose une entente complète entre les époux portant à la fois sur le principe du divorce et sur ses effets. Les époux doivent, par l’intermédiaire d’un avocat, introduire une requête auprès du juge aux affaires familiales compétent. Ils doivent y annexer une convention destinée à régler les conséquences du divorce. Il s’agit notamment des mesures relatives à  l’autorité parentale (lieu de résidence habituelle des enfants, droit de visite et d’hébergement, pensions alimentaires), de la prestation compensatoire (somme éventuellement due par un époux à l’autre époux), de la future résidence des ex-époux, des frais de procédure, de la liquidation du régime matrimonial (avec l’obligation de requérir un notaire en cas de bien soumis à publicité foncière (propriété de maison par ex)). Les époux sont convoqués par le juge à une audience. Le juge homologue la convention et prononce le divorce lorsque les intérêts des enfants et des époux sont suffisamment préservés. Le jugement de divorce peut être prononcé dès la première comparution devant le juge.

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Le divorce pour faute

Un époux peut demander le divorce à cause d’une violation grave ou renouvelée des devoirs et obligations du mariage de son conjoint rendant intolérable le maintien de la vie commune. Constituent des fautes : l’infidélité, l’abandon du domicile conjugal, les violences, les injures, humiliations et dénigrements, le défaut d’assistance ou de participation à la vie de famille. La procédure est introduite par une requête adressée par un époux (par son avocat) auprès du juge aux affaires familiales compétent. Après une première audience de conciliation au cours de laquelle sont notamment discutées les mesures provisoires destinées à s’appliquer durant la procédure (résidence des époux et des enfants, autorité parentale, pensions alimentaires…), une ordonnance de non-conciliation est rendue par le juge.

L’époux qui a fait déposer la requête doit alors assigner son conjoint en divorce. La suite de la procédure conduit les avocats des époux à débattre du principe du divorce (y-a-t-il faute ou non ?) et des effets éventuels de celui-ci (autorité parentale, prestation compensatoire, dommages-intérêts…). A l’issue des échanges contradictoires, le juge rend, si la faute est reconnue, un jugement de de divorce qui en précise les effets.

 

Le divorce par acceptation de la rupture du mariage

Dans ce cas,  les époux s’accordent sur le principe de la rupture du mariage. Une requête est alors adressée par l’avocat d’un époux au tribunal. Le juge convoque ensuite les époux à l’audience de conciliation au cours de laquelle les époux, assistés de leur avocat, donnent leur accord sur le principe du divorce. Une fois donné, ce consentement ne peut plus être remis en cause. Au cours de l’instance de divorce, introduite ensuite par voie d’assignation, les effets du divorce sont débattus (autorité parentale, effets patrimoniaux du divorce tels que pensions alimentaires pour les enfants ou prestation compensatoire pour un conjoint…).
A l’issue de la procédure, le juge prononce le divorce et statue sur ses conséquences.

 

Le divorce pour altération définitive du lien conjugal

Cette dernière hypothèse peut être envisagée lorsque les époux ont cessé toute communauté de vie pendant les deux années précédant l’assignation en divorce ou lorsqu’une demande de divorce par un époux n’a pas abouti et que l’autre époux a formé une demande reconventionnelle en divorce pour altération du lien conjugal.
La procédure est introduite par requête. Les époux sont convoqués à une audience de conciliation. Suite à celle-ci, une ordonnance de non-conciliation est rendue par le juge et l’époux qui a introduit la requête assigne l’autre en divorce. Le juge prononce obligatoirement le divorce dans la seconde hypothèse envisagée ci-dessus. Dans la première, il prononce le divorce dès lors que le délai de séparation a été observé. La décision porte également sur les effets du divorce.

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