Produits défectueux : aspects internationaux

La Convention de La Haye du du 2 octobre 1973 sur la loi applicable à la responsabilité du fait des produits  entrée en vigueur le 1er octobre 1977 en France (le Règlement (CE) no 864/2007 du Parlement Européen et du Conseil du 11 juillet 2007 sur la loi applicable aux obligations non contractuelles n’a pas vocation à s’appliquer en vertu de son article 28. L’article 1er al. 2 de cette convention prévoit que “Lorsque la propriété ou la jouissance du produit a été transférée à la personne lésée par celle dont la responsabilité est invoquée, la Convention ne s’applique pas dans leurs rapports respectifs.”

Il convient donc de distinguer deux hypothèses. Soit la victime est celle qui a acheté le produit défectueux, soit c’est une autre personne.

La Convention de la Haye de 1973 ne s’appliquant pas dans la première hypothèse, il convient de mettre en oeuvre une autre convention, celle du 15 juin 1955 sur la loi applicable aux ventes à caractère international d’objets mobiliers corporels.

Aux termes de son article 3 al. 1 : “ A défaut de loi déclarée applicable par les parties, dans les conditions prévues à l’article précédent, la vente est régie par la loi interne du pays où le vendeur a sa résidence habituelle au moment où il reçoit la commande. Si la commande est reçue par un établissement du vendeur, la vente est régie par la loi interne du pays où est situé cet établissement”. Autrement dit, si les parties ont choisi une loi, celle-ci s’appliquera. A défaut, la loi applicable sera celle de la résidence habituelle du vendeur. Il ne s’agit là que du principe qui peut être remis en cause par d’autres solutions (art. 3).

Si la victime n’était pas partie au contrat, il faut alors appliquer l’article 3 de la Convention de 1973. Là encore, seul le principe peut être rappelé (le texte prévoit d’autres solutions).L’article 4 l’exprime ainsi : “ La loi applicable est la loi interne de l’Etat sur le territoire duquel le fait dommageable s’est produit, si cet Etat est aussi:
a) l’Etat de la résidence habituelle de la personne directement lésée,
b) l’Etat de l’établissement principal de la personne dont la responsabilité est invoquée, ou
c) l’Etat sur le territoire duquel le produit a été acquis par la personne directement lésée.”

En cas d’achat sur internet, le dommage subi par une personne autre que l’acheteur pourra donc en principe être réparé sur le fondement de la loi française.

Encore convient-il de tenir compte de la limitation prévue à l’article 2 b) de la convention qui prévoit que “ le mot «dommage» comprend tout dommage aux personnes ou aux biens, ainsi que la perte économique; toutefois le dommage causé au produit lui-même, ainsi que la perte économique qui en résulte, sont exclus, à moins qu’ils ne s’ajoutent à d’autres dommages”.

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